>> METAMORPHOSIS OF 1 RUPEE COINS OF INDIA, 1835 TO 2011

Uniform coinage of India:
Prior to 1835 A.D., the East India Company issued coins in Bengal Presidency, Bombay Presidency and Madras Presidency. These coins were circulated in local area for use in the local trade.

For any particular value, the coins circulated in different areas of India were of different weight, fineness and size. In order to remove this chaotic condition, East India Company decided to introduce a uniform coinage in the territories of the company.

All the details of the new coinage were laid down by Act XVIII of 1835. As per this act the weight of the rupee coin was standardized at 180 grains troy (1 Tola) and its fineness at 11/12 (i.e. 165 grains of pure silver and 15 grains of alloy). The rupee coin would bear the effigy of the then king of United Kingdom.

Standard Silver Rupee:
Specifications
Weight- 180 grains
Metal composition- 165 grains of pure silver and 15 grains of alloy
Diameter – 1.3”
Shape - Circular
Edge – milled
Obv - effigy of the then king or queen of United Kingdom
Rev – Value of the coin

1835 – 1840 (King William IIII)

Obv - Head of William IV with the legend “WILLIAM IIII KING”
Rev – Value of the coin in English and Persian with the legend “EAST INDIA COMPANY”
All other specifications are same as described above.

1840, (First issue) (Queen Victoria – Continuous Legend)
Photo By Pv Bharat

Obv – Uncrowned head of Queen Victoria with the continuous legend “VICTORIA QUEEN”
All other specifications are same as described above.

1840 - 1861, (Second issue) (Queen Victoria – Divided Legend)
Photo By Pv Bharat

Obv - Uncrowned head of Queen Victoria with the divided legend “VICTORIA QUEEN”
Dia – Changed from 1.3” to 1.2”
All other specifications are same as described above.

After the Indian mutiny in 1857, the administration of India was transferred from East India Company to a Council of state under British crown. In the year 1858 Victoria was proclaimed as the queen of Great Britain and colonies.

1862 - 1876, (Queen Victoria, Crowned head)
Photo By Pv Bharat

Obv - Crowned bust of Queen Victoria in place of uncrowned head design of the earlier issues with the divided    legend “VICTORIA QUEEN”
Rev – Value of the coin in English only. Legend “EAST INDIA COMPANY” removed
All other specifications are same as described above.

On 1.1.1877 Queen Victoria assumed the title of “Empress of India”. Hence the inscription on the Rupee and other coins was changed from “Victoria Queen” to “Victoria Empress”.

1877 - 1901, (Victoria Empress)
Photo By Pv Bharat

Obv - Crowned bust of Victoria Empress with      the legend “VICTORIA EMPRESS”
All other specifications are same as described above.

1901 - 1910, (King Edward VII)

Obv – Uncrowned head of King Edward VII with the legend “EDWARD VII KING & EMPEROR”
Rev – Crown of the king, coin value in English and Persian and a floral design.
All other specifications are same as described above.

King George Variable was coroneted on 22nd June, 1911 after the death of his father King Edward VII. Rupee coins were issued bearing his effigy from 1911 to 1922. No rupee coin was issued from 1923 to 1936.

1911 - 1936, (King George V)
                          ( Photo by - Mayank Agrawal, Varanasi)       
Obv – Crowned head of King George V with the legend “GEORGE V KING EMPEROR”
Rev – Coin value in English and Persian with date surrounded with a floral design.
All other specifications are same as described above.

King George VI was coroneted in 1937. Rupee coins were issued bearing his effigy from 1938.

1937 - 1939, (King George VI)
Photo By Pv Bharat

Obv – Crowned head of King George VI with the legend “GEORGE VI KING EMPEROR”
Years of Issue – 1938, 1939
All other specifications are same as described above.

Quaternary Silver Rupee:
The 2nd World War started in 1939. Due to the war the price of silver rose high. The metal value of the silver rupee coin surpassed its face value. Hence the Government decided to issue rupee and other Standard Silver coins in quaternary alloy.

1940 - 1945, (King George VI)
                            ( Photo by - Mayank Agrawal, Varanasi)

Metal composition - quaternary alloy ( 50% silver,40% copper, 5% Nickel and 5% Zinc)
Edge – Security
Years of issue – 1940 to 1945
All other specifications are same as described above.

Pure Nickel Rupee:
Due to the rise of price of silver after the end of World war II, the Government decided to issue rupee and other Quaternary Silver coins, in pure Nickel.

1947, (King George VI)

Year of issue – 1947
Rev – Value in English, Hindi and Persian with a stalking tiger.
Metal composition – Pure Nickel
Diameter – 1.1”
All other specifications are same as described above.

1950 – 1956 ( Republic of India ) (Old Currency)

Years of issue – 1950, 1954
Obv – Lion Capital of Ashoka, with the legend “ GOVERNMENT OF INDIA “
Rev – A large 1 flanked by two ears of corn and value in English, and “Ek Rupaya” in Hindi.
All other specifications are same as described above.

1957- 1974 ( Republic of India ) (Decimal Currency)

Years of issue – 1962, 1970
Obv – Lion Capital of Ashoka, with “INDIA” in English and “Bharat” in Hindi
Rev – Same as above but value in Hindi changed to “Rupaya”.
Weight - 10 grams
Diameter – 28 mm
All other specifications are same as described above.

Cupro Nickel Rupee:
With a view to conserve Nickel which was in short supply throughout the world, the Government decided to issue rupee coins in cupro nickel with less weight.

1975-1982 (Big size rupee)

Years of issue – 1975 to 1982
Metal composition – Cupro-Nickel (75% Copper and 25% Nickel)
Weight - 8 grams
All other specifications are same as described above.

1983-1991 (Small size rupee)

Years of issue – 1983 to 1991
Weight - 6 grams
Diameter – 26 mm
Edge – Security from 1983 to 1989, Upright milled from 1990 t0 1991
All other specifications are same as described above.

Stainless Steel Rupee:
Due to gradual rise in the price of cupper and Nickel, the intrinsic value of the cupro-nickel coins surpassed its face value. To check the large scale diversion of these coins from circulation for melting purposes by dishonest traders, the Government decided to gradually change cupro-nickel coins to steel coins. In this regard steel coins in the denomination of 10p, 25p and 50p were changed to steel from 1988. The rupee coin was issued in steel from 1992.

1992-2004 (Same design as 1983-1991 cupro nickel rupee)


Years of issue –1992 to 2004
Metal composition – Ferrite Stainless Steel (80.5% Iron, 18% Chromium)
Weight - 4.85 grams
Diameter – 25 mm
Edge – Upright milled from 1992 to 1995, Plain edge from 1995
All other specifications are same as described above.

2004 – 2006 (Theme - Unity in diversity) (cross)


Years of issue –2004 to 2006
Rev – A cross dividing 4 dots with value in            English and Hindi
Obv – “Bharat” in Hindi, “India” in English at top, Lion capital and big 1 between 2 horizontal lines, Year of    issue at bottom
Edge - Plain
All other specifications are same as described above.

2007 – 2011 (Theme - Bharat Natyam) (One finger)


Years of issue –2007 to 2011
Rev – A lady’s hand with pointing fore finger    with a big 1 and “Rupaya” in Hindi,”Rupee” in English.
Obv – “Bharat” in Hindi, “India” in English at     top, Lion capital between 2 horizontal lines, Year of issue at bottom
All other specifications are same as described above.



2011  (Theme – New Rupee Symbol)




Specifications
Years of issue – 2011
Metal composition –  Ferritic Stainless Steel (83% Iron, 17                                             % Chromium)
Weight –  3.75 gms
Shape –  Circular
Diameter – 22 mm
Edge –  25 serrations on diagonally opposite sides
Obv –  The face of the coin shows the Lion Capitol of Ashoka Pillar with the legend "Satyameva Jayate" in Hindi, inscribed below, flanked on the left periphery with the word "Bharat"  in Hindi and on the right periphery with the word “INDIA" in English.
Rev – The face of the coin shows the denominational value “1” in the international numerals flanked on the left and right periphery with a floral design. The upper periphery bears the Rupee symbol and the year of minting in international numerals is shown on the lower periphery.

Minted at – Kolkata, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Noida
Km Number –NA

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Acknowledgement:
Many many thanks to Dr. P V Bharat for providing pictures of 5 coins  and also to Mayank Agrawal for providing pictures of 2 coins for this blog.
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8 comments:

  1. मेरे पास दो 1947 का सिक्‍का है, एक में जवाहरलाल नेहरू का चिञ है और दूसरे में सिंह का चिञ है

    दूरभाष - 09934194780

    ReplyDelete
  2. Vivekananda OjhaMay 19, 2014 at 2:20 PM

    Sir, The effort taken by you to bring such a blog about Indian coins is very appreciative.Congratulations!
    If, possible please correct the info about the 1983 on wards issue small one rupee coin(6 gms). It was the year 1982 (and not 1983) these coins were started.I suppose the issue was towards the end of the year hence very few coins could be minted in this particular year and this probably makes the 1982 small rupee coin a rarity.It's a very sought after coin by collectors of Republic India.

    ReplyDelete
  3. I should 1p coin 2 coin of 1961
    5000 one rupee coin

    ReplyDelete
  4. I should 1p coin 2 coin of 1961
    5000 one rupee coin

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Very good effort to bring the awareness amoung the new comers. Congrats

      Delete
  5. It would be good if you mention the value of this coins in todays life.

    ReplyDelete